Development of the hottest mining machinery

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Development of mining machinery

first, the important role of coal in China's energy structure

coal is China's main energy and an indispensable material foundation for national economic and social development. China is rich in coal resources, and the scientific and technological innovation of coal resources has not yet formed a new driving force. The distribution area is about 600000 square kilometers, accounting for 6% of the land area. According to the third national coal resources prediction and evaluation, the total amount of coal resources in China is 5.57 trillion tons, with great potential, and the total amount of coal resources ranks first in the world. Among the identified resources, only 25% are carefully surveyed, and only 17% are carefully surveyed. The proved reserves reached 1020.2 billion tons. Among them, the recoverable reserves are 189.1 billion tons, accounting for 18%, and the per capita share is only 145 tons, lower than the world average. The outline of medium and long term energy development plan (Draft) formulated by the State Council points out that "we should vigorously adjust and optimize the energy structure, adhere to the strategy of taking coal as the main body, electric power as the center, and the comprehensive development of oil, gas and new energy". In view of the characteristics of "more coal, less oil and less gas (natural gas)" in China, the energy structure will still be dominated by coal for a long time in the future, and coal accounts for about 70% of the primary energy consumption. In 2004, coal accounted for more than 70% of China's primary energy production, and played a major role in China's energy structure

according to the demand of building a well-off society in an all-round way, the trend of coal consumption will increase significantly. In the composition of coal consumption users, the coal consumption of electric power, metallurgy, building materials and chemical industry increased from 50% of the total coal consumption in 1990 to 84% in 2004, of which electric power accounted for 51.8%, metallurgy 11.64%, and the annual proportion of 27% increased to 51% in 2004, nearly doubling

II. The development status of China's coal industry

entering the 21st century, China's coal industry has developed rapidly. In 2000, the country produced 990 million tons of coal, 1.104 billion tons of coal in 2001, 1.38 billion tons in 2002 and 1.667 billion tons in 2003. In 2004, China produced 1.956 billion tons of coal, accounting for 74.3% of the country's total one-time energy production. In that year, the sales volume of coal was 1.891 billion tons, accounting for 65% of the country's total one-time energy consumption. The productivity level was significantly improved, and significant progress was made in the adjustment of industrial structure. Some enterprises have begun cross regional and cross industry industrial alliances, and the industrial chains of coal, electricity, chemicals, roads, ports and aviation have begun to take shape, forming a number of leading domestic and internationally competitive large groups, such as Shenhua Group, Shanxi Coking Coal Group, Yanzhou Mining Group, etc. China's coal output has risen sharply, which has attracted worldwide attention

coal is the cornerstone of China's energy security. Coal industry is an important basic industry in China. China's coal output has ranked first in the world and is a major coal producer. Now China's coal industry has the ability to design, construct, equip and manage tens of millions of tons of open-pit coal mines and large and medium-sized mines. Modern fully mechanized mining equipment, fully mechanized excavation equipment and large and efficient open-pit stripping, mining, transportation and supporting equipment are widely used in large and medium-sized coal mines. At the same time, the overall level of coal mining technology and equipment in China is low, and the coal production technology and equipment is a multi-level structure with mechanization, partial mechanization and manual operation. The level of technology and equipment is low. 60% of coal mines nationwide are non mechanized. The equipment level of large and medium-sized state-owned key coal mines is relatively advanced, but the equipment aging degree is large; The production technology and equipment level of small-scale mines is very low, the production technology of coal mines is backward, there are too many operators, and the efficiency is low. Ensuring coal supply is one of the priorities of the state to strengthen macro-control of the coal industry. Tapping the potential of coal production and accelerating the construction of large coal bases are important measures. Therefore, only by significantly increasing the output of large and medium-sized coal mines can we curb the development of small coal mines, eliminate small coal mines and complete the optimization and adjustment of coal production structure under the premise of ensuring the stable supply of coal. Since December, 1998, the state has made major adjustments to the coal industrial structure, closed more than 50000 small coal mines, and eliminated a number of backward production capacity. Through macro-control, the coal production situation has improved, and the relationship between supply and demand has become balanced. At present, there are more than 25000 coal production enterprises in China, of which enterprises above Designated Size account for about 60%. In 2005, it is planned to close more than 2000 small coal mines. With the completion of the initial evaluation of ELG's materials by the fanguanghong researcher team of the advanced manufacturing technology research center of the General Academy of Mechanical Sciences

III. problems existing in China's coal industry and the gap with international advanced coal producing countries

1. China's coal enterprises are small in scale and low in industrial concentration. The prominent characteristics of China's coal enterprises are small in scale, low efficiency, poor safety conditions and low industrial concentration. According to the statistical data analysis of the coal industry, in 2002, state-owned key coal mines accounted for 52%, state-owned local coal mines accounted for 18%, and township coal mines accounted for 30%. According to the well type, large mines account for 32%, medium mines account for 18%, and small mines (including township mines) account for 48%. In 2004, there were about 25000 coal mines in the country, with more than 95% of small coal mines. About 40% of the mines with an annual output of less than 30000 tons accounted for. The concentration of the coal industry was only 15%, which was far lower than the level of major coal producing countries in the world. As an internationally advanced coal producing country, the scale of the coal industry is centralized. The top 10 large companies in the world rely on their core competitiveness to become stronger and bigger, which has improved the concentration of the global coal industry. In 2003, the coal output of the top 10 coal companies accounted for about 18.81% of the global output, and the coal output of five companies exceeded 100 million tons, of which the first ranked Peabody company reached 183 million tons, Rio Tinto reached 143 million tons, and the coal output of the top four enterprises in the United States accounted for 46.9% of the total domestic coal output

2. China's coal equipment is backward, the degree of mechanization and automation is low, and there is a lack of large complete sets of equipment China's coal mines have a weak production foundation and the continuous and tight production of state-owned coal mines accounts for nearly 50% of the total. The main production equipment of coal mines is seriously aging, and the overdue service accounts for% of the total. Some township coal mines have simple equipment and poor production conditions. Some of them have no mechanical equipment at all and are only operated manually, which does not meet the requirements of relevant Coal Laws and regulations. At present, China's resources are seriously damaged and wasted. Some coal enterprises waste resources such as "mining thick and discarding thin" and "eating fat and discarding thin". The average resource recovery rate of coal mines across the country is about%, and the resource recovery rate of small mines in resource rich areas is only%. According to the statistical data analysis of the coal industry, in 2002, the mechanization degree of coal mining in China's key state-owned coal mines was 77.78%, the mechanization degree of comprehensive coal mining was 62.98%, the mechanization degree of tunneling was 81.15%, the mechanization degree of comprehensive shaft excavation was 15.03%, and the mechanization degree of local state-owned coal mines was lower. At present, the mechanization of coal mining in China is only 42%. Except that the mechanization of mining in large and medium-sized state-owned coal mines has reached 75%, most coal mines have low production technology, poor equipment and low efficiency. Township coal mines, in particular, are basically non mechanized. In 2004, the output of township coal mines accounted for 39% of China's total coal output. For coal seams above 5.5 meters that are not suitable for top coal caving, it is the most reasonable and effective mining method to adopt one-time full height mining, but at present, there is no suitable high-yield and efficient fully mechanized mining equipment in China. Foreign joy company, DBT company and Eickhoff company all have mature high-yield and efficient complete sets of equipment for fully mechanized mining of high coal seams at one time. The annual output of complete sets of equipment introduced by Shenhua Group has exceeded 10.85 million tons, the length of working face has exceeded 300 meters, the longest working face has exceeded 400 meters, and the total installed power of working face has exceeded 5000kW. In the international advanced coal producing countries, coal production presents the characteristics of high-power, heavy-duty, automation, intensification and environmental protection. Foreign advanced coal mining equipment is developing towards high-power and heavy-duty, with large equipment reserve coefficient and high operation reliability. Mining equipment companies such as DBT (Germany), joy (America) and eickhoof (Germany) all manufacture products with automation functions. Federal mine No. 2 has realized automatic rack moving with the machine in the working face. Batana coal mine in Australia has realized automatic coal cutting and automatic rack moving with the machine. In particular, information technology has been widely used in coal mine production. Advanced coal mines widely collect the operating parameters of working face equipment and environmental safety detection information, which are displayed in the working face and transmitted to the ground computer through Ethernet, so as to realize remote transportation and fault diagnosis. The transportation system, power supply system and ventilation system are unattended. Centralized remote operation and video monitoring shall be implemented, and special personnel shall be assigned to patrol. The layout of shaft and roadway is intensive, and the production system and links are few, realizing a high degree of concentration of production. It is usually produced in one mine, one well and one side. Some advanced longwall working faces only need 6 people per shift, including 2 shearer drivers, 1 maintenance worker, 1 centralized head operator, and the other 2 people replace and rest. Attach great importance to the improvement of working environment and human safety protection. The computer monitors the safety information, and the monitoring probes are all over the whole mine. The hydraulic support has the functions of automatic spray following the machine and automatic spray moving the frame; The air deflector is installed above the Shearer to reduce the coal dust entering the pedestrian space. Almost no one works on the downwind side of the shearer

3. There are many coal mine safety production accidents in China. In terms of coal mine safety production, major gas accidents occur frequently, and the total number of deaths from coal mine accidents has reached a peak. In 2004, China produced about 2 billion tons of coal, and about 6000 deaths from accidents. In recent years, coal production has increased significantly, and the death rate of 1 million tons of coal mines has still decreased. From 5.59 in 1994 to 3.08 in 2004, the United States produced about 1 billion tons of coal deaths, and the mortality rate of one million tons was about 0.039; The mortality rate per million tons in Poland is 0.09; The death rate per million tons in South Africa is 0.13; The mortality rate per million tons in Russia is 0.34. The mortality rate of one million tons in China is about 100 times that of the United States, about 10 times that of Russia and about 12 times that of India, which is much higher than that of advanced coal producing countries. According to relevant experts, mine safety detection instruments and safety equipment have been considered in the design. Most accidents are mine management problems, and there are fewer accidents due to equipment problems. Relying on large-scale and powerful fully mechanized mining technology and equipment, advanced coal producing countries have completed the transition from ordinary fully mechanized mining to efficient and intensive mine production and automation. The construction of high-yield and efficient coal mines not only improves the efficiency of coal production, realizes the intensive production of coal mines, but also creates conditions for safety monitoring and monitoring in the process of coal mine production, so as to effectively prevent and control coal mine safety production accidents. Advanced coal producing countries attach great importance to safety production. They not only have a sound safety production legal system, but also strict production safety measures and strict coal mine production access system, but also realize computer monitoring of safety information, with monitoring probes throughout the whole mine, ensuring safe production

IV. the demand of coal industry development for mining machinery and equipment

1. The development trend of China's coal industry

according to the relevant content of the development plan of the coal industry, "the Eleventh Five Year Plan" period, China will build about 300 million tons of coal mines, of which 200 million tons will be put into production. During the 11th Five Year Plan period, the state will adjust the industrial structure of the coal industry, vigorously integrate, transform and close small coal mines, moderately speed up the construction of large coal bases, start a number of modern large coal mines, and replace backward production capacity. During the "Eleventh Five Year Plan" period, the modern enterprise system in the coal industry should be further improved, and large coal enterprise groups should be basically formed. By 2010, 100 million ton enterprises will be formed

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